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got a certain amount of consideration in the comparative freedom
of their educational system. But conditions were different in
Rome. In the first place, the fact that adult culture was based
on the language and literature of another people and that analytical
studies like grammar had a great vogue among the educated
classes, made the materials of instruction in the schools remote
from the interests of childhood. In the second place, the more
thorough organization of education in Rome had created a standard
course of learning which every boy of a certain rank had to under-
go irrespective of abilities or inclinations. The result is to be
seen in the harsh discipline of both the elementary and the
grammar schools. Orbilius plagosus, who taught Horace, and the
rascally Indi magister whose incessant shouts and blows disturbed
the equanimity of Martial,* are personages only too familiar in
Roman literature. Quintilian, taking a broader and more humane
view of education than the ordinary teacher, could not but be
conscious of the problem which this state of matters presented
to the intelligent educator. But though he strongly condemned
corporal punishment as degrading and unnecessary, and sought
to make allowance for the natural differences in the work of
education, he failed to recognize that the root of the evil was in
the character of the instruction. The boy for him was simply
an imperfect man with weaker intelligence and stronger memory;
and the instruction he approved for him, conformably with this
crude psychology and with Roman tradition, was a lesser measure
of adult knowledge and skill. When the Empire broke up, the
literary education that trained orators for the public life of Rome
on its best days, with Quintilian's Education of an Orator as one
of its textbooks, became the model for the education of Europe,
and brought the boys of a later day into a bondage even more
complete than that of the Roman boys. It was not till many
centuries had elapsed that the problem was re-opened and a
more satisfactory solution sought in the light of new ideas of

* Epigram, ix, 68.